The majority of Indonesia's population lives near water, both on the coast or along rivers and lake shores. For example Citarum River is the largest and the most important river in West Java because of its function as irrigation, source of drinking water and industry, covering the big three reservoirs namely Saguling (5,600 Ha), Cirata (6,600 Ha) and Jatiluhur (8,300 Ha).
The recent study showed that the concentration of heavy metal of Pb (10-33 ppb) in certain location was higher compare to National Water Quality Standard (30 ppb), while Cd was still lower compare to Pb(6-7.3 ppb) and Water Quality Standard (10 ppb). However, concentration of Cd in sediment was higher compare to Sediment Quality Standard (2 ppb). On the other hand, concentration of Pb in sediment was higher (70-230 ppb) compare to Cd (20-60 ppb), but still lower compare to Sediment Quality Standard(530 ppb).
Bioaccumulation of Cd was observed in the fishes living in the Citarum River, which were consumed by the people who live in the village close to the river. For example in concentration Cd in Nile Tilapia is 105 ppb, Tilapia is 109 ppb which higher compare to National Standard. Therefore, this condition is very dangerous especially to the people who consume the fish.
Possible approaches were also discussed in relation to the one of key point of sustainable development goals (SDGs).
Various national and international laws and regulations are existed to protect freshwater. However, law enforcement is difficult and pollution is still continuously occurred. In Indonesia, there is the Act of Republic of Indonesia and the Indonesian Government Regulation and also the Decree of Environment Minister and other ministers who organize and regulate pollution issues in freshwater. Furthermore, there is also standard water quality for all designation in freshwater.